Coins became scarce in Germany during World War I. Gold coins were retracted within the first days of war, silver coins soon followed. When copper and nickel became strategic metals in the course of combats, small coins were taken out of circulation as well. Moreover, increasing devaluation and the hoarding of coins by the people accelerated the disappearance of coins. Despite extensive governmental emergency issues – coins from lead, aluminum and zinc were minted in great quantities – not enough coins could be provided. Therefore cities and communities started to give out emergency money. Although there was no legal basis for communal monies, the state tolerated them since it could not offer enough official currency itself.