United States of America, California, Pomo and Chumash-Indians, Hawock Shell Money (Wampum)

Such strands from clam shell disks were used as money in central and southern California. They were manufactured by breaking saltwater clam shells into pieces, piercing and threading them and finally grinding them evenly round. The main producers of this clam shell money called "hawock" were the Pomo and Chumash Indians. Hawock was used before the arrival of Europeans in North America. The beads were real money items and thus represented wealth as well as decoration.