The Mamluks were mercenary troops. In the service of the Abbasid Caliph they became very powerful. In the mid 13th century they took over power in Egypt, where they established a Mamluk Empire. It existed until 1517, when the Ottomans conquered Egypt. The Mamluk sultans adapted the coins of their forerunners unchanged. Only Baibars al-Bunduqdari (1260-1277), the fourth ruler and issuer of this dinar, created new designs for his coinage. He was the first Mamluk to call himself as Sultan on his coins. Most of his successors maintained this habit. As his personal emblem, Baibars put a lion on his coins.