Russia, Great Duchy of Moscow, Ivan IV the Terrible, Kopeck

Kopecks were the most important means of payment in Russia from the 16th to the early 18th century. Their name derived from the coin image on the obverse, showing the tsar on horseback with a spear (Russian kopje). The reverse bore Cyrillic inscriptions. The production of these kopecks was simple. A hammered silver wire served as coin blank, which was accordingly of an irregular shape. Hence the coin image and the inscription did generally not fit on the blank.